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The bone yields evidence for a probable cut and gauge marks (right upper part of the bone).The picture was taken after the bone had undergone sampling for Zoo MS and before sampling for a DNA, radiocarbon, and stable isotope analysis.Primary pitchblende mineralization from the Collins Bay unconformity-type uranium deposit in northern Saskatchewan has been dated using the Sm-Nd method.The mineral isochron age of 1281 ± 80 Ma is in good agreement with other geologic and geochronological data, and demonstrates the potential of the Sm-Nd technique for the direct dating of hydrothermal mineral deposits.We decided to attempt to redate it, using a larger starting mass of bone powder.Unfortunately, there was insufficient collagen remaining from this sample after pretreatment. The majority of the 383 samples we analyzed yielded poor collagen preservation, which prevented any identification to genus or taxon.Given the evidence from the Peștera cu Oase specimen, which demonstrates a recent Neanderthal ancestry in a 40,000 cal B. modern human from the Danube corridor (5), the renewed dating of the Vindija remains is overdue. On the basis of the potential problems associated with the small size of the redated samples and the potential for remaining contaminants, Ox A-X-2089-06 was considered to be a minimum age (14).Two specimens, Vi-207 and Vi-208, were originally directly AMS dated in the late 1990s at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). If the dates are even approximately correct, however, it makes them the most recent known Neanderthals.

Radiocarbon dating of Neanderthal remains recovered from Vindija Cave (Croatia) initially revealed surprisingly recent results: 28,000–29,000 B. This implied the remains could represent a late-surviving, refugial Neanderthal population and suggested they could have been responsible for producing some of the early Upper Paleolithic artefacts more usually produced by anatomically modern humans.Full mitochondrial genomes of Vi-207 and Vi-*28 were reconstructed with an average coverage of 103-fold and 257-fold, respectively.The mitochondrial DNA sequence of Vi-207 was identical to Vi-33.25 and Feldhofer 1 mitochondrial genomes, whereas Vi-*28 had an identical mitochondrial sequence to Vi-33.17 (, Fig. Both Vi-33.25 and Vi-33.17 were found in layer I of Vindija Cave.The European record for the transition retains its interest because it is the best-documented sequence for the disappearance of a hominin group available (3). Ascertaining the spatial attributes of Neanderthal and modern human populations in Europe is an area of active research, and a reliable chronology remains essential. (Vi-208: Ox A-X-2089-06), which indicated the previous dates were indeed too young.The latest data, both radiometric and genetic, suggest Neanderthals and modern humans coexisted or overlapped for up to several thousand years in Europe until Neanderthal disappearance at around 40,000 cal B. Our understanding of the biocultural processes involved in the transition have been greatly influenced by improved accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating methods and their application to directly dating the remains of late Neanderthals and early modern humans, as well as artifacts recovered from the sites they occupied. (10) showed that, when redated using ultrafiltration methods, the bones that produced ages of ∼33,000 B. were in fact beyond the radiocarbon limit, suggesting the Neanderthal remains were unlikely to be as young as previously thought. For sample Vi-208, after ultrafiltration, the C/N atomic ratio was 3.4, which indicates collagen of acceptable quality.

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